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The Leader Of Superhard Materials Is Expected To Become A Leader In The Next Generation Of Semiconductor Materials

August 31,2023

The iteration of materials is the key driving force for the progress of modern science and technology. Hardness is one of the most important and basic performance indicators of materials. In the future, harder materials must be used to expand the human technology tree, including geological drilling, aerospace, high-end equipment and other fields. As the two leading players in the field of superhard materials, diamond and cubic boron nitride (c-BN) have complementary advantages, and jointly build a modern superhard material system. [1]
Among them, cubic boron nitride is an inorganic material with excellent performance and various structures. It is widely used, and it is also found in the field of hard technology.

It is even expected to become the next generation of semiconductor materials.

This article is the twenty-fifth article in the series of "Domestic Substitution" planned by "Kutshell Hard Technology", focusing on cubic boron nitride. In this article, you will learn about: different structures of boron nitride and their properties, what boron nitride with different structures can do, and the market status of boron nitride.

It is no accident that cubic boron nitride and diamond can stand side by side as superhard materials, and they have similarities.

1

Another Pair Of "Cousins" Of Superhard Materials

In the field of superhard materials, if diamond and graphite are a pair of "cousins" of different crystal forms of carbon, cubic boron nitride and hexagonal boron nitride are another pair of "cousins".

Boron nitride (BN) is a III-V binary compound composed of boron and nitrogen, and its crystal structure is mostly isomorphic with carbon[2],Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) and wurtzite boron nitride (w-BN) with sp3 hybridization, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and rhombohedral boron nitride (r-BN) with sp2 hybridization ) four main crystal forms. In addition, during the preparation process, it also exists in the form of amorphous boron nitride (a-BN) and turbostratic boron nitride (t-BN).[3]

2

Crystal structure of boron nitride[4],Nutshell Hard Technology Annotation


In academia and industry, cubic boron nitride (c-BN) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) have received the most attention and applications.[5],The two crystal structure materials can be compared to the corresponding carbon materials.

Cubic boron nitride has a crystal structure similar to diamond, and is one of the superhard materials as famous as diamond; while hexagonal boron nitride has a layered crystal structure similar to graphite, and its color is ivory white, often called "white graphite".
The early preparation of artificial diamond was mostly under high temperature and high pressure conditions, which promoted the allotropic transformation of graphite [6]. At the same time, under different temperatures and pressures, diamond and graphite can undergo phase transformation[7]。The relationship between cubic boron nitride and hexagonal boron nitride is similar, although the relative stability of the two has been controversial in history[8],But generally speaking, hexagonal boron nitride is the main raw material for preparing cubic boron nitride.

Every year, the domestic cubic boron nitride industry consumes more than 400 tons of hexagonal boron nitride[9]。Therefore, if you want to straighten out the cubic boron nitride industry, you must also understand hexagonal boron nitride.

Cubic Boron Nitride (c-Bn)

Cubic boron nitride is an all-around player with excellent performance in mechanical, thermal, optical, chemical, and electronic aspects. Its hardness is 5000kg/mm^2 (micro-Vickers hardness 70Gpa), and the hardness increases sharply with the decrease of size. It is widely used in superhard material processing, cutting tools, wear-resistant materials;The thermal conductivity is 1300W·m^-1·K^-1, and has a thermal expansion coefficient close to that of Si and GaAs, making it a good heat sink material[10];In addition, cubic boron nitride can be doped to obtain n-type or p-type semiconductor materials, with extremely high performance parameters (6.4eV ultra-wide bandgap, ε0=7.1 low dielectric constant, 8MV cm^-1 high breakdown field strength), At the same time, it has better thermal stability and high-temperature chemical inertness than diamond, and has good prospects in high-temperature, high-power, high-frequency electronic equipment and optical devices.[11]


3

Cubic Boron Nitride Main Performance Corresponding Applications, Watchmaking丨Guoke Hard Technology
Reference materials丨"Cubic boron nitride composite material high temperature and high pressure preparation and performance research"[12]


Unlike diamond, it was generally believed in the early years that there was no natural cubic boron nitride. In 1957, cubic boron nitride was synthesized for the first time under high temperature and high pressure conditions.[13],For nearly fifty years, humans have not found naturally occurring cubic boron nitride. Until 2009, a research team composed of geologists from China, the United States and Germany discovered this mineral in the chromium-rich rock of the ancient oceanic crust at a depth of about 306 kilometers underground in the southern mountainous area of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. About 1300 ℃, 118430 atmospheric pressure, thus forming this crystal.[14]

Because the high temperature and high pressure environment required to form cubic boron nitride is extremely harsh, its synthesis is a major problem in its industrialization. Generally speaking, the synthesis of cubic boron nitride requires extremely high pressure (3GPa ~ 8GPa), extremely high temperature (800°C ~ 2000°C) and a long time (hours to days)[15]。However, contrary to this, the high temperature and high pressure synthesis method has complex equipment, high cost, and the finished prdoucts are all granular[16]。In addition, the high-pressure environment inhibits grain growth, resulting in generally small single crystal sizes, making it difficult to achieve large-scale industrial applications.[17]

So far, the synthesis methods of cubic boron nitride include high temperature and high pressure method (including static high pressure catalyst method and shock compression method), vapor phase deposition method (CVD and PVD), hydrothermal method, benzene thermal method and laser induced reduction method, etc.[18],Static catalytic high-temperature and high-pressure synthesis is still the main method for preparing cubic boron nitride crystals, but the synthesis efficiency is low and the synthesis cost is high.


4

Preparation Method of Cubic Boron Nitride, Watchmaking丨Guoke Hard Technology
Reference materials丨Powder circle[18],"Research on the Synthesis Process and Mechanism of High-quality Coarse Cubic Boron Nitride Single Crystal"[19]


The histories of cubic boron nitride and diamond are two parallel lines. The first human synthesis of cubic boron nitride occurred one year after the first synthesis of diamond (1957). The GE researcher who synthesized cubic boron nitride was also in the same laboratory as the team that synthesized diamond. The lowest pressure and temperature used at that time was 6.2 GPa and 1350°C[20]。Then, in order to adapt to industrial production, the academic circles and the industry explored the use of catalysts such as various alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, fluorides, metal nitrides and ammonium borate salts to reduce the reaction pressure and temperature.[21]


5

The main changes in the synthesis technology of cubic boron nitride
References丨"Foundry Technology"[22]


Many experiments have shown that the characteristics of hexagonal boron nitride, the raw material of cubic boron nitride, affect its preparation, including order, particle size, impurities, electronic structure and other factors. Only when the grain size of hexagonal boron nitride is smaller and the impurities are higher Less is more conducive to the nucleation and growth of cubic boron nitride.[23]


Hexagonal Boron Nitride(h-BN)

Hexagonal boron nitride and graphite are isoelectronic bodies, so the properties of the two are very similar, including high thermal conductivity, low friction coefficient, low thermal expansion coefficient, good thermodynamics and chemical stability, etc. Hexagonal boron nitride and graphite are isoelectronic bodies , so the properties of the two are very similar, including high thermal conductivity, low coefficient of friction, low coefficient of thermal expansion, good thermodynamic and chemical stability, etc.[24]。But unlike graphite, the C—C bond in graphite is a pure covalent bond, and the covalent bond of hexagonal boron nitride is an ionic bond, making the B—N bond stronger and harder to break. In addition, the special crystal of hexagonal boron nitride The structure makes it more chemically inert.[25]

Specifically, the in-plane mechanical strength of hexagonal boron nitride reaches 500N/m; the anti-oxidation temperature in the air is 800°C ~ 900°C, the anti-oxidation temperature under vacuum conditions can reach 2000 ° C, and the melting point is as high as 3000°C[26],The thermal conductivity can reach 600W·m^-1·K^-1, among which the theoretically calculated thermal conductivity of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) is as high as 1700~2000W·m^-1·K^-1; the band gap is 5~6eV, The breakdown field strength reaches 35kV/mm.[27]

Hexagonal boron nitride can stand under the spotlight. In addition to its own excellent performance parameters, graphene is undoubtedly its "noble man". Two-dimensional materials have attracted widespread attention since graphene was mechanically exfoliated from cracked graphite in 2004[28],hexagonal boron nitride is another popular two-dimensional material after graphene.

The unique layered structure of two-dimensional materials has excellent physical and chemical properties, large specific surface area, quantum Hall response, adjustable band gap and other characteristics, and it also has great potential in the manufacture of smaller size and higher speed field effect transistors.[29]。At present, hexagonal boron nitride has broad application prospects in the fields of energy, nanoelectronics, photonics, biomedicine, water pollution treatment, special coating preparation, gas sensing, anti-corrosion and catalysis.[30][31]

The preparation methods of hexagonal boron nitride mainly include high temperature method, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), precursor method, hydrothermal or solvothermal method. The preparation of hexagonal boron nitride powder in the industry is divided into low temperature method and high temperature method[32]。In terms of single crystal production, due to the high melting point of hexagonal boron nitride, it is extremely difficult to grow single crystals by melt method or sublimation method. Therefore, high temperature solution method is the main method for its single crystal production.


6

The synthetic method of hexagonal boron nitride[32]


Hexagonal boron nitride nanomaterials have a variety of different microstructures, mainly including nanosheets, nanotubes, nanofibers, nanofilms, nanospheres, nanofibers, etc. Different structures and properties have their own strengths and are used in different fields. The preparation conditions are also different.


7

Different Morphologies and Preparation Methods of Hexagonal Boron Nitride[33]


Although hexagonal boron nitride has strong chemical inertness and oxidation resistance, it also increases the difficulty of surface modification.[27]


1


The Ideal Is Great,But The Preparation Is A Headache


High-quality materials are the premise to promote large-scale application, and the ability to apply is the key. Cubic boron nitride is not a new material, why is there still little discussion in the industry? From the perspective of different fields, it has its specific uses, but due to the difficulty of preparation, many applications only exist in ideals.

Superhard Material Field

The so-called superhard material is a material with a Vickers hardness exceeding 40Gpa, which is generally composed of III, IIV, V group co-bond compounds and simple substances, and is divided into single crystal, polycrystalline, and amorphous.[34]

The development of human civilization is closely related to hard materials. At the earliest, human ancestors began to use stones to make simple tools and use stones to polish tools, then bronze became the most effective material, 5,000 years ago, iron played this role, until the last two centuries, diamonds, ceramics, etc. New materials began to emerge and were widely used in industrial operations such as turning, cutting, drilling, boring and grinding.


2

Parameter properties of different abrasives[20]



At present, cubic boron nitride and diamond have been included in the "Strategic Emerging Industries Classification (2018)"[35]。The question is, there are already diamonds, why do we still need to make cubic boron nitride?

In fact, in terms of hardness, cubic boron nitride is not as good as diamond. In industrial applications, cubic boron nitride will be used to reduce the grain size and improve hardness, that is, nanonization. Studies have shown that the Vickers hardness of micron-sized polycrystalline cubic boron nitride is 33GPa~45GPa, and the cubic boron nitride with a particle size of 14nm has a Knoop hardness of 85GPa. In contrast, the nanoscale diamond with a particle size of 10~30nm has a Knoop hardness of 110Gpa~140GPa, which is much higher than that of cubic boron nitride. So far, the highest hardness of nano-cubic boron nitride can reach 108GPa.[36]

Only hard, can not cope with all applications. On the one hand, due to the poor thermal stability of diamond, it will be oxidized when it reaches 600°C in the atmosphere, and it will turn into graphite when it reaches 1300°C~1400°C in vacuum, while cubic boron nitride is below 1300°C in the atmosphere. No oxidation reaction occurs, and it will transform into hexagonal boron nitride at 1550°C in vacuum; on the other hand, diamond begins to dissolve in iron or iron alloys when the temperature reaches 700°C, while cubic boron nitride does not interact with iron-based metals below 1150°C reaction.[20]

Therefore, diamond tools can only be used at moderate temperatures, and can only process non-metallic materials and a series of non-ferrous alloys. The application of cubic boron nitride is mainly to fill the vacancies of diamond, especially suitable for processing various hardened steels, chilled Difficult-to-machine materials such as steel.[16]

There is no perfect material in the world. The fracture toughness of cubic boron nitride is less than half that of diamond. At the same time, the sinterability of the two superhard material powders is extremely poor. The combination of polycrystalline diamond (PCD) or polycrystalline cubic boron nitride ( PCBN) mechanical properties are difficult to exceed the single crystal itself.[37]

Therefore, in order to best fit the application, other materials will be mixed into cubic boron nitride in the industry to form a superhard composite material, or cubic boron nitride and diamond will be synthesized into a heterogeneous composite block. The material properties are there, and how they are used depends on the downstream application.


3

Performance comparison between cubic boron nitride and diamond[38]


Chip Field

Both cubic boron nitride and hexagonal boron nitride can be used for core making, and they are also ideal materials.

Compared with traditional silicon materials, cubic boron nitride has an ultra-wide bandgap of 6.4eV and a very high Ballyga figure of merit (the higher the performance, the better), it is a natural material for high-power chips. More than that, cubic boron nitride can perform simple n-type (S or Si) and p Type (Be) doping, through its natural and beautiful parameters, it is very promising in high-power high-temperature electronic devices.


4

Ballyga figure of merit map (BFOM) for conventional semiconductors, wide bandgap (WBG) and ultrawide bandgap (UWBG) semiconductors[39]
Note: The closer to the lower right area, it represents higher BFOM and higher performance


So far, various physical vapor deposition (PVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods have been used to prepare cubic boron nitride thin films, including ion beam assisted pulsed laser deposition (IA-PLD), ion beam deposition (IBD), ion Plating (IP), substrate bias modulation sputtering (SB-sputtering) and plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD), etc. [40], the substrate materials are Si, WC, TiC, TiN, Ni, Al, Cu , Ag, SiC, Ta, Mo, quartz, stainless steel, diamond and many other materials.[41]


5

Development history of c-BN crystal preparation and epitaxial growth of c-BN thin film[39]


While people have high hopes for the new material, it is a pity that making cubic boron nitride is difficult.

First of all, it is difficult to achieve large-scale single crystal preparation of nitride by traditional methods such as Czochralski and floating zone melting, while cubic boron nitride single crystal is mostly prepared by static high temperature and high pressure method, and the sample size is within 0.5mm, resulting in the lack of homogeneous single crystal. Crystalline substrates, most of which use Si, Ni, Ti, alloys, and diamonds as heterogeneous epitaxy. At present, there are still many key technical issues that need to be solved for heterogeneous epitaxy;[42]

Second, there is no easy preparation route for cubic boron nitride, and ion bombardment-assisted methods must be employed[43],It is inevitable to introduce vacancy defects, causing structural damage and compressive stress, thereby limiting the film thickness to 100nm~200nm;[44]
Finally, no matter what method is used to prepare cubic boron nitride thin films, there is the problem that the nucleation and growth conditions are difficult to control.[45]

Hexagonal boron nitride has great potential in manufacturing smaller and taller field effect transistors, but it is still far from industrialization in terms of controllable growth. However, research on hexagonal boron nitride is not useless. At present, the size of hexagonal boron nitride single crystal film prepared by ISBD has reached 100 μm, and the size of hexagonal boron nitride film by LPCVD growth and transfer method has reached 7 inches.

Specifically, the epitaxial growth of transition metal substrates (Cu, Ni, Fe, Au, Pt, Re, Ir, Ru, etc.) and sapphire dielectric substrates is currently the main research direction of hexagonal boron nitride. The former has a self-limiting effect. The thickness generally does not exceed 10 layers, which is not conducive to the application of high-voltage and high-power devices. The weak catalytic activity of the latter leads to high epitaxial growth temperature. In the future, it is necessary to explore the direction of low-temperature epitaxial growth to facilitate large-scale applications. At the same time, research on graphene, Si, and Ge as substrates is also ongoing.[46]


Thermal Field

Heat conduction is an inconspicuous but important subdivision. In fact, with the increasingly high integration and high power of electronic products, heat begins to accumulate, causing accelerated aging of equipment, and it is time to cool down the chip.

Conventional packaging mostly uses high-molecular organic materials that are easy to process and low in cost, but their thermal conductivity is poor. Therefore, materials with small dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and high thermal conductivity are usually used as thermal conductivity materials for packaging, which directly affects the thermal conductivity through chemical synthesis. Polymer structural properties or filling high thermal conductivity fillers into polymers.[47]

Cubic boron nitride and hexagonal boron nitride both have good thermal conductivity and can become a new generation of chip heat dissipation materials, and they are also hot topics for thermal management. At present, the practical application in the field of heat conduction is more hexagonal boron nitride, and most of them are a part of composite materials.

The theoretical thermal conductivity of hexagonal boron nitride can reach 2000W·m^-1·K^-1, and the thermal conductivity of the actual micron sheet is generally 600W·m^-1·K^-1, and the thermal conductivity in the horizontal direction is 20~30 times that in the vertical direction[47]。Although the actual thermal conductivity value is lower than that of graphene, as an insulating material, it can be directly applied to the chip without the need for an insulating layer, reducing the hindrance to heat flow transmission and maximizing its thermal conductivity.[48]


6

Summary of non-covalent functionalization of hexagonal boron nitride and thermal conductivity of its polymer composites[49]


The thermal conductivity of cubic boron nitride single crystal can be as high as 1300W·m^-1·K^-1, and the theoretical thermal conductivity of cubic boron nitride/diamond interface at room temperature can reach 10 times that of Si/diamond interface[50],Therefore, it is an ideal thermal conductivity material.

However, preparation is still a restrictive factor for the large-scale development of cubic boron nitride and hexagonal boron nitride. At present, the industry still lacks high-quality, large-size, and low-cost single crystal manufacturing technology.


7


Although cubic boron nitride is very promising in the future, the current market size is really not big, and it is mainly used in the superhard field. Fact.MR data predicts that the global cubic boron nitride market will grow from US$950 million to US$2 billion from 2023 to 2033, with a compound annual growth rate of 7.7%.[51]

Look at China for superhard materials in the world, and look at Henan for Chinese superhard materials. At present, my country is the world's largest producer of superhard materials, of which cubic boron nitride accounts for more than 70% of the world, 45% of the annual output is exported to overseas markets, and the output of abrasive-grade cubic boron nitride single crystal accounts for 60% of the world's total output. above. In Zhengzhou alone, in 2021, the city's cubic boron nitride polycrystalline output will account for more than 80% of the country's total output, cubic boron nitride single crystal output will exceed 70%, and the output of superhard material tools for precision machining will exceed 30%.[52]

The market size of cubic boron nitride in the field of superhard materials is second to that of diamond. In 2022, the domestic output of cubic boron nitride will be about 670 million carats, and the market size of cubic boron nitride cutting tools will reach 3.58 billion yuan, accounting for about 57% of the total size of superhard cutting tools.[53][54]

From the perspective of production scale, the annual output of cubic boron nitride single crystal is stable at more than 600 million carats in China; the output of cubic boron nitride micropowder is steadily increasing with the precision, ultra-precision processing and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN). More than 100 million carats; the annual output of cubic boron nitride coating products as a derivative is nearly 100 million carats.[55]


8

Sales of major products in the superhard material industry in 2021[53]
Note: Contains polycrystalline diamond and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride


Domestic prosperity does not happen overnight. In November 1966, Zhengzhou Institute of Abrasive Grinding successfully produced China's first cubic boron nitride. In the following 20 years, the development was unsatisfactory, with few product varieties, low grades, and slow progress in synthetic technology. At that time, there were only the Sixth Grinding Wheel Factory, Harbin Grinding Wheel Factory, Tianjin Hongdi 232 Factory, Liaoning Diamond Factory, and Beijing Yanjiao Diamond. Industrial companies, Zhengzhou Abrasives Grinding Research Institute, etc. Since then, as the domestic synthesis method has matured and the price of raw material hexagonal boron nitride has dropped, the overall cost of cubic boron nitride has decreased accordingly, and domestic production has been greatly developed.[55]

The six-sided top press is also an important factor contributing to the development of cubic boron nitride in my country. In 1965, Zhengzhou Institute of Abrasive Grinding independently developed my country's first synthetic diamond six-sided pressing machine and put it into production. Its production efficiency was nearly 20 times higher than that of foreign-developed double-sided pressing machines. At present, well-known international companies such as Element Six, Japan's Sumitomo Electric, and South Korea's ILJIN have successively purchased large-scale six-sided presses produced in China to replace the original two-sided presses.[56]


9

The main development events of domestic cubic boron nitride, tabulation丨Guoke Hard Technology
References 丨 "Journal of Central Plains Institute of Technology"[55]


Nowadays, there are more than three leading enterprises in the domestic cubic boron nitride industry, including Henan Funike, Zhongnan Jiete, Henan Feimeng, Zhengzhou Shenfa, Kaifeng Besco, Xinyang Delong, etc. Not only that, but now the variety of products that can be produced in China is more than that of foreign companies, and if derivative products or customized products are counted, there will be more.[55]


10

CBN basic product series of several manufacturers[55]


Although the market is booming, domestic products are still concentrated in the middle and low-end, unable to produce high-quality cubic boron nitride single crystals above 50 mesh required for high-end products, a large part of which depends on imports, and superhard Composite materials are mainly controlled by companies such as DI, Element Six, Sumitomo of Japan, and Iljin of Korea. At the same time, there is also a certain gap in China in terms of market sales volume and product quality in product application fields.[57]

In addition, from the perspective of market segments, the global major manufacturers of composite welded cubic boron nitride cutting tools are Element Six, DI, MegaDiamond, Sumitomo, Nisshin and other enterprises, and Henan enterprises in the field of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride cutting tools have obvious advantages in the world. Advantage.[58]

In the future, cubic boron nitride with nano-twin structure will be a super tool material with great potential, which is expected to be used in my country's industry; my country's ultra-high pressure technology includes the advancement of primary pressure chamber and secondary pressure chamber technology, which can be used under industrial production conditions. It is possible to directly convert hexagonal boron nitride to cubic boron nitride; in addition, cubic boron nitride thin film synthesis, explosive synthesis, and hydrothermal synthesis will be the key development paths for new technologies in my country in the future.[55]

From the perspective of patents, using cubic boron nitride as the keyword, a total of 4,764 patents were found in 170 countries/regions, with a total patent value of 141,305,600 (US dollars). Japan ranked first with 36.47%, China ranked second with 21.71%, followed by the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Africa, accounting for 20.23%, 3.27%, and 3.21% respectively.


11

National distribution of cubic boron nitride patents, picture source 丨 Wisdom Bud


Sumitomo Electric, General Electric, Mitsubishi, Element Six, Showa Denko, and DIAMOND are leaders in the field of cubic boron nitride, and their patent construction is extremely deep, while the number of patent applications of two domestic companies, Zhongnan Jieite and Funike, ranks within the top ten.


12

Cubic boron nitride patent applicants, picture source 丨 Wisdom Bud


Judging from the flow chart of the five bureaus, domestic cubic boron nitride patents lack patents to go overseas, while the situation of related patents in the United States and Japan is relatively good.

In terms of domestic universities, Jilin University, Hohai University, Zhongyuan Institute of Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Yanshan University, Tianjin University, Henan University of Technology, Henan University of Technology, Shandong Jianzhu University, etc. have relevant patent reserves.


13

Cubic boron nitride flow diagram of the five bureaus, source丨Wisdom Bud


The raw material hexagonal boron nitride for the production of cubic boron nitride is not a large-scale market either. Mordor Intelligence data shows that the hexagonal boron nitride market will grow from US$810 million to US$1.04 billion from 2018 to 2028, with a compound annual growth rate of 4.94%.[59]

Specifically, the United States is the main global market for hexagonal boron nitride, with a scale of US$ 200 million in 2020. my country's demand for hexagonal boron nitride is increasing year by year, and it is estimated that the domestic market size will reach 150 million US dollars in 2025. Manufacturers in the global hexagonal boron nitride market include 3M Corporation, American Elements, HC Starck GmbH, Denka, Hoganas AB, and Kennametal.[60]

From the perspective of patents, using hexagonal boron nitride as the keyword, a total of 5,759 patents were found in 170 countries/regions, with a total patent value of 174,840,300 (US dollars). China ranked first with 35.39%, Japan ranked second with 20.46%, followed by the United States, Germany, and South Korea, accounting for 17.72%, 5.57%, and 4.07% respectively.


14

National distribution of hexagonal boron nitride patents, picture source 丨 Wisdom Bud


Denka, General Electric, Showa Denko, 3M, Tokuyama Soda, DuPont, Samsung Electronics, Element Six and other companies are leaders in the field of hexagonal boron nitride, and the patent construction is extremely deep. Domestic companies such as Fu Nike and Zhongnan Jet have also established A deep patent wall.


15

Hexagonal boron nitride patent applicants, picture source 丨 Wisdom Bud


Judging from the flow chart of the five bureaus, domestic hexagonal boron nitride patents are also lacking in overseas patents. On the other hand, the related patents in the United States and Japan are relatively good.

In terms of domestic universities, Jilin University, Jiangsu University, Xiamen University, Hebei University of Technology, Wuhan University of Technology, Shandong University, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Tsinghua University, Xidian University, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Hohai University, Wuhan Engineering University, Shenyang University, Sichuan University, Beijing University of Science and Technology, Sun Yat-sen University, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, etc. all have relevant patent reserves.


16

Hexagonal boron nitride five bureau flow diagram, source丨Wisdom Bud


Judging from the name alone, few people can understand what cubic boron nitride refers to, and it is even more difficult to attract the attention of the market, but it is an out-and-out potential stock. In addition to the field of superhard materials, it is also preparing to enter the More industries.